Submitted: 11 Oct 2022
Accepted: 25 Jun 2023
ePublished: 29 Jun 2023
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Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2023;10(1): 44-56.
doi: 10.34172/ajehe.2023.5316

Scopus ID: 85171440351
  Abstract View: 641
  PDF Download: 314

Original Article

Optimization and Isothermal Studies of Antibiotics Mixture Biosorption From Wastewater Using Palm Kernel, Chrysophyllum albidum, and Coconut Shells Biocomposite

Ogundipe S. Opeoluwa 1,2, Latinwo G. Kayode 1, Ayobami O. Ajani 1,2, Tinuade J. Afolabi 1,2, Idris O. Okeowo 3,4, Adetoro R. Olaitan 5, Abass O. Alade 1,2,6* ORCID logo

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
2 Bioenvironmental, Water, and Engineering Research Group (BWERG), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
3 University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic
4 Institute for Water Education (IHE), Delft, Netherlands
5 Analytical/Environmental Chemistry Unit Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Osun State University, P.M.B. 4494, Osogbo, Nigeria
6 Science and Engineering Research Group (SEARG), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Abass O. Alade, , Email: aoalade@lautech.edu.ng


The presence of persistent pharmaceutical products in water bodies is a significant problem that obstructs wastewater reuse. This study investigated the adsorption process for removing the recalcitrant antibiotics, including tetracycline (TC), ampicillin (AMP), and amoxicillin (AMOX) from an aqueous solution using a composite biosorbent made from a mixture of palm kernel shell (PKS), Chrysophyllum albidum (CAS), and coconut shell (CS). Simplex centroid design in the Design of Expert ( was applied to optimize the percentage composition (20-55%) of the composite biosorbent precursor and to remove TC-AMP-AMOX mixtures from the aqueous solution in a batch study. The equilibrium data were fitted to 12 isotherm models and analyzed statistically. The maximum adsorption capacity of 9.12 mg/g, 8.66 mg/g, and 7.11 mg/g was achieved for TC, AMP, and AMOX, respectively, using the biocomposite biosorbent with an optimal mixture of 55% PKS, 20% CAS, and 25% CS. The adsorption behavior of TC, AMP, and AMOX was well-described by the Langmuir/Elovich isotherm (R2=1.000), Hill-DeBoer (R2=0.9953), and Freundlich/ Halsey (R2=0.9898) models, respectively. The obtained results showed that the biocomposite PKS-CAS-CS leverages the individual adsorptive capacity of each constituent to enhance the adsorption process. Moreover, the composite biosorbent demonstrated excellent potential for removing recalcitrant pharmaceuticals from wastewater effectively.

Please cite this article as follows: Opeoluwa OS, Kayode LG, Ajani AO, Afolabi TJ, Okeowo IO, Olaitan AR, et al. Optimization and isothermal studies of antibiotics mixture biosorption from wastewater using palm kernel, Chrysophyllum albidum, and coconut shells biocomposite. Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2023; 10(1):44-56. doi:10.34172/ajehe.2023.5316
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