Submitted: 31 May 2022
Accepted: 07 Nov 2023
ePublished: 29 Dec 2023
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Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2023;10(2): 85-97.
doi: 10.34172/ajehe.5283
  Abstract View: 398
  PDF Download: 188

Original Article

Performance of TANN, NARX, and GMDHT Models for Urban Water Demand Forecasting: A Case Study in a Residential Complex in Qom, Iran

Mostafa Rezaali 1 ORCID logo, Reza Fouladi-Fard 2,3* ORCID logo, Abdolreza Karimi 4 ORCID logo

1 Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States
2 Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
3 Environmental Health Research Center, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
4 Department of Civil Engineering, Qom University of Technology, Qom, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Reza Fouladi-Fard, Email: rezafd@yahoo.com, Email: rezafd@yahoo.com


To keep the balance between demand and supply, methods based on the average per capita consumption were usually applied to predict water demand. More complicated models such as linear regression and time series models were developed for this purpose. However, after the introduction of artificial neural networks (ANNs), different applications of this method were used in the field of water supply management, especially for urban water demand prediction. In this study, multiple types of ANNs were studied to understand their suitability for a residential complex water demand prediction in the city of Qom, Iran. The results indicated that time series ANN (TANN), nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX), group method of data handling time series (GMDHT), and their wavelet counterparts (i.e., w-TANN and w-NARX) exhibited varying degrees of performance. Among the aforementioned models, w-NARX performed the best (based on the average overall error) with the test set root mean squared error (MSE) of 49.5 (m3 /h) and R of 0.93, followed by the GMDHT model with the test set MSE of 104 (m3 /h) and R of 0.97 and w-TANN with the test set MSE of 68.8 (m3 /h) and R of 0.91. In addition, the feedback connection in NARX compared to TANN demonstrated overall performance improvement.

Please cite this article as follows: Rezaali M, Fouladi-Fard R, Karimi A. Performance of TANN, NARX, and GMDHT models for urban water demand forecasting: a case study in a residential complex in Qom, Iran. Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2023; 10(2):85-97. doi: 10.34172/ ajehe.5283
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