Submitted: 04 Feb 2021
Revision: 04 May 2021
Accepted: 09 May 2021
ePublished: 29 Jun 2021
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Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2021;8(1): 17-21.
doi: 10.34172/ajehe.2021.03
  Abstract View: 219
  PDF Download: 109

Original Article

Changes in Aflatoxin Content During the Processing of Vinegar Obtained From Grape

Ali Heshmati 1 ORCID logo, Fereshteh Mehri 1* ORCID logo, Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi 2, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah 3

1 Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Medicine, Nutrition Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
3 Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering,University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80.Caixa Postal: 6121, Campinas, São Paulo CEP: 13083-862, Brazil


Mycotoxins are known to be one of the most important food contaminants that pose potential health risks to humans. This study aimed to investigate the changes in total aflatoxin (TAF) content during grape vinegar production. Different types of aflatoxins including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), and G2 (AFG2) were spiked into washed grape samples in the level of 5 μg/kg. Then grape samples were converted to vinegar. After different stages of vinegar processing including juicing, alcoholic fermentation, acetic acid fermentation, and pasteurization, sampling was performed and the level of each aflatoxin was measured using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). Among different processing steps, the pasteurization operation had the least effect on the removal of aflatoxin. After juicing, the amount of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 decreased by 14%, 11.18%, 13.77%, and 18.56%, respectively. Alcoholic fermentation had the greatest effect on the removal of aflatoxin so that it could reduce the levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 by 41.87%, 45.34%, 45.37%, and 46.52%, respectively. Overall, during processing and conversion of grapes to vinegar, the values of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were reduced by 76.20%, 71.06%, 69.26%, and 75.85%, respectively. Processing grapes to vinegar can have a significant effect on the aflatoxin reduction.
Keywords: Mycotoxin, Aflatoxin, Vinegar, Processing, Grape,
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