Submitted: 16 Sep 2022
Accepted: 31 Oct 2023
ePublished: 29 Dec 2023
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Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2023;10(2): 78-84.
doi: 10.34172/ajehe.5310
  Abstract View: 194
  PDF Download: 78

Original Article

Human Health Risk Assessment of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Tea Leaves Harvested from Farm Regions of Gilan Province, Iran

Alireza Rahmani 1 ORCID logo, Fatemeh Armak 1* ORCID logo, Mohammad Khazaei 1, Ghorban Asgari 1, Mostafa Leili 1, Marjaneh Einipour Rashti 2

1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Science, Hamadan, Iran
2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Giulan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Fateme Armak, Email: fateme.armak@gmail.com, Email: fateme.armak@gmail.com


Tea holds a special place in Iranian culture, ranking as the most widely consumed beverage after water. A significant portion of Iran’s domestic tea production (approximately 70%) originates from the lush landscapes of Gilan province. The Iranian Tea Research Center (ITRC) claims that Iranian tea is pesticide-free. However, there is a concern that tea farms in the foothills may be exposed to pesticide spraying from nearby citrus gardens. This study aimed to investigate the presence of the 17 organophosphorus pesticides in tea leaf samples collected from tea plantation areas in Gilan province. Sample preparation was carried out using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, followed by the determination of pesticide concentrations using the gas chromatography (GC) method. To assess the non-carcinogenic risk associated with the consumption of black tea due to pesticide residues, we followed the guidelines provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The results were striking, revealing the presence of pesticide residues in all tested samples, raising concerns about the purity of Iranian tea. Notably, the hazard quotient (HQ) for children (<15 years old) exceeded that for adults (>15 years old). Furthermore, spring-harvested tea samples demonstrated higher HQs compared to their autumn counterparts.

Please cite this article as follows: Rahmani A, Armak F, Khazaei M, Asgari G, Leili M, Einipour Rashti M. Human health risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticides in tea leaves harvested from farm regions of Gilan province, Iran. Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2023; 10(2):78-84. doi:10.34172/ajehe.5310
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