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Submitted: 15 Feb 2020
Revision: 10 Jun 2021
Accepted: 17 Jun 2021
ePublished: 29 Jun 2021
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Avicenna J Environ Health Eng. 2021;8(1): 43-51.
doi: 10.34172/ajehe.2021.07
  Abstract View: 91
  PDF Download: 73

Original Article

Contamination of Selective Vegetables of Hamadan With Heavy Metals: Non-carcinogenic Risk Assessment

Ava Kharazi 1 ORCID logo, Mostafa Leili 1* ORCID logo, Mohammad Khazaei 1, Mohammad Yusef Alikhani 2, Reza Shokoohi 1, Hassan Mahmoudi 2

1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Microbiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

Abstract

The current study was undertaken to determine the concentration of lead, cadmium copper, and zinc (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) in three types of collected green leafy vegetables irrigated with contaminated water compared with those irrigated with the fresh water of Hamadan province, Iran using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) technique. Twenty samples of vegetables such as basil, leek, and lettuce irrigated with contaminated water, and twenty samples from five different adjacent areas irrigated with fresh water as control were analyzed to determine heavy metals (HMs). The highest mean concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, regardless of the kind of vegetables irrigated with contaminated water, was 0.95, 0.32, 3.03, and 13.58 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively. Moreover, metals uptake differences by the vegetables were recognized to vegetable differences in tolerance to HMs. The human health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values of Pb and Cd were higher than the threshold value of 1, and ingestion was the main exposure pathway of HMs to both children and adults. It suggested that all receptors (especially basil and lettuce) in Hamadan province might have significant and acceptable non-carcinogenic risk because of exposure to Pb and Cd. The significant amount of these HMs in some plants may be due to agricultural uses for the irrigation of the vegetable lands of untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater. The findings revealed that vegetables imply the total health risk on local people, and regular monitoring of HMs is strongly recommended in this region.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Leafy vegetables, Non-carcinogenic risk assessment, Hamadan province,

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